Commission of Inquiry into the Investigation of the Bombing of Air India Flight 182
Witness: Bruce Hoffman
Bruce Hoffman (Professor, Security Studies Program, Georgetown University) continues to testify under direct examination by Mark J. Freiman, Commission Lead Counsel, about the phenomenon of terrorism in general, the connection between terrorism and the bombing of Air India flight 182, various understandings of the phenomenon of terrorism, the interplay between security concerns and intelligence concerns with respect to terrorism, the challenges of intelligence gathering with respect to terrorism in a liberal-democratic state, attempts by various terrorist organizations to promote public policies that prevent the assimilation into the larger society of people of their particular ethnicity, terrorist financing, and related issues. Jacques Shore (Counsel for the Air India Victims’ Families Association) conducts cross-examination, asking Mr. Hoffman to compare the American response to the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, to the Canadian response to the bombing of Air India flight 182 in 1985. Mr. Hoffman elaborates on the challenges of determining whether or not a given act is an act of terrorism. Barney Brucker, Counsel for the Attorney General of Canada, cross-examines Mr. Hoffman, with questions focusing on his work with the RAND Corporation, the absence of RAND studies on the Air India bombing, the existence of claims of responsibility for the Air India bombing, significant challenges in investigating and prosecuting the perpetrators of the 1988 Lockerbie bombing, conventional understandings of terrorism at the time of the Air India bombing, and challenges associated with combating terrorism.